Items Posted In December, 2021

Kalam Cosmological Argument

Cosmic inflation is the very brief time after the Big Bang when the Universe expanded at tremendous velocities - its existence has recently been proven.

Posted on October 19, 2021 by

Categories: Philosophical

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The Cosmological Argument is an attempt to demonstrate the existence of God by showing the universe is created and not eternal and self-existent.  The greatest minds throughout history have attempted to characterize the universe. However, these characterizations were primarily philosophical as there was no way to objectively evaluate the universe’s characteristics until very recently. One main concern of these philosophical meanderings was whether the universe was infinite in both size and age.  The ancient Greek philosophers such as Aristotle believed that matter was uncreated and eternal, making the universe itself eternal. Jewish thought informed through Scripture believed all of creation… Read More »

Biblical People Are Confirmed

Posted on October 2, 2021 by

Categories: Archaeology, Historical Evidence

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One of the most exciting facets of Biblical history is that the identities of many Biblical people are confirmed by archaeology.  In addition to those confirmed through recent archaeological discoveries are many others whose identities are likely verified, but the evidence is unclear. The importance of these discoveries is challenging to overstate.  For years, many of these critical Biblical narratives were thought only to be mythological inventions.  Liberal theologians supposed that Jewish scribes returning from Babylonian captivity wanted to portray their history positively for future generations. Moreover, these scribes did not want the Jewish people to be associated with years… Read More »

The Divided Church

Posted on September 20, 2021 by

Categories: Philosophical

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There is no doubt that Christianity consists of a divided church.  There are now more than 45,000 denominations throughout the world.  Many of these denominations disagree vehemently, while many seem very intolerant of others’ beliefs. These differences in beliefs, church governance, Scripture interpretation, and other matters might seem casual to the outside observer but can be of fundamental importance to churchgoers. This division has not escaped the attention of atheists.  For example, the late prominent atheist Christopher Hitchens aggressively promulgated the belief that “religion spills everything.”  He also noted, Four hundred years and more people in my own country of… Read More »

Why Mass Matters

The Christmas Star or Star of Bethlehem was a stellar event which was visible continuously or intermittently for multiple months.

Posted on September 12, 2021 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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Astronomy found that its mass determines nearly every aspect of a star’s physics; in the end, mass matters most.  Its mass and lifespan primarily determine the star’s place on the HR diagram.  The star’s position on the HR diagram determines its absolute brightness and color. The problem was that astronomers did not understand why this was so at the beginning of the twentieth century. First, they had thought that maybe younger stars would burn brighter, but this was not necessarily so.  Then astronomers hypothesized that larger stars would be brighter, which is also not necessarily so. The reason why so… Read More »

Star Clusters

Star Cluster M15.

Posted on September 10, 2021 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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Stars are not uniformly distributed throughout the night sky but are often clumped together in star clusters.  These star clusters were of some nuisance to astronomers trying to discover comets or deep sky objects because they appeared similar to the casual observer. Charles Messier gained some fame in cataloging some of these annoying clusters so they could not be confused with other objects, especially comets.  His occupation as the Astronomer of the Navy for the government of France afforded him some opportunity to gain familiarity with the night sky.  He made a catalog of star clusters so that he and… Read More »

Stellar Mass

Posted on September 6, 2021 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The next mystery to be addressed by astronomy concerned stellar mass.  Henry Russel proposed in 1914 that the hotter, more luminous stars had greater mass, while the cooler stars had a lower mass.  This means that the stars on the upper left of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram were had a greater stellar mass and had a blue color, while those on the lower right corner of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram were red stars with much lower masses. Unfortunately, early in the twentieth century, there was no way astronomers could measure stellar mass. How astronomers figured this out represents one of the greatest… Read More »

The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram

Sirius and White Dwarf

Posted on September 4, 2021 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is foundational to an understanding of stars and virtually everything astronomers have learned about stars, galaxies, and the universe.  The diagram plots the absolute magnitude of a star against its spectrum. Thus, to put any star on the diagram, we only need to know its surface temperature (which relates to its spectral type) and the absolute brightness. Astronomers can determine the spectral type for visible stars if the telescope can gather enough light.  The amount of light collected from a star can be increased with a larger telescope, longer collections time, or more sensitive equipment. In addition,… Read More »

Ancient City of Ziklag Discovered

The City of Ziklag was found at an ancient archaeological site in Israel.

Posted on August 26, 2021 by

Categories: Archaeology, Historical Evidence

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The Biblical ancient city of Ziklag has been discovered in Israel.  The Times of Israel reports that the site was accidentally found by archaeologist Saar Ganor surveying the Elah Valley in 2007.  This valley is most popular as the site of the confrontation between King David and Golia. The boy shepherd defeated the mighty Philistine warrior with a slingshot stone knocking him unconscious. David would become king of Israel only after spending thirteen years on the run from King Saul.  Saul was jealous of David’s abilities and likely viewed him as a rival to his throne.  Saul relentlessly hunted David down… Read More »

Paul’s Conversion Date

The conversion of Paul occurred in 34 AD shortly after the Crucifixion.

Posted on August 23, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence

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Paul’s conversion date has been a topic of intense academic study for many decades. As a result, a historical narrative has been painstakingly assembled to include many important historical events relevant to ancient Christianity.  These include Herod’s death date, Christ’s birth date, John the Baptist’s ministry, Christ’s Crucifixion date, and Paul’s conversion date and death date. Remarkably, these dates can be determined with some reliability and interrelate with each other in a smooth historical narrative. Of course, the dates are certainly still a manner of considerable controversy and some speculation, and certainly, there is no consensus of agreement among historians… Read More »