List of articles

Articles Concerning the Christian Faith

Herod The Great

Posted on July 29, 2021 by

Categories: Uncategorized

There are many villains in world history but few as despicable as Herod the Great.  Scriptures depict King Herod as conniving and ruthless, struggling to maintain his power while ruthlessly subduing the Jewish population of Israel.  He was the one that killed children less than two years old when he heard from the Magi that the Messiah had been born in Bethlehem.  Herod wanted to kill the Messiah because Herod viewed the young Jewish King as a political adversary and a threat to his throne.  Herod likely would have killed the Christ child had not the entire family fled to… Read More »

Date of the Crucifixion

The resurrection of Christ is the central feature of Christianity.

Posted on July 21, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence


The exact date of the Crucifixion has been debated for many years, and even today many theologians get it wrong.  That is a bold statement to be sure but it is one that I am willing to back up. We now have many more resources to establish the date of the Crucifixion than ever before.  We can attack the problem from multiple directions including the various eclipses that occurred over Jerusalem during the time in question, the year of Paul’s conversion, the date various Roman Emperors were in charge, recollections from the Church Fathers as to the exact date, consideration… Read More »

Three Days and Nights

A one year old male lamb was sacrificed for every family during Passover as an image of the coming Messiah who would become the Lamb of God.

Posted on July 18, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence


Most Christians believe Christ was crucified on a Friday and rose from the dead after three days and nights.  Other believers put forth other crucifixion days including Thursday and Wednesday.  There is consensus that Christ arose on a Sunday morning based on Matthew 28:1 which notes, Now after the Sabbath, as the first day of the week began to dawn, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb. The problem arises concerning the amount of time Christ spent in the grave.  How could he have spent three days and nights in the grave if he were crucified… Read More »

Ancient Rabbinical References to Jesus

The Torah is the first five books of the Old Testament representing the Law.

Posted on July 15, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence

Tags: ,

Ancient rabbinical references to Jesus provide another confirmation of the historicity of Christ in addition to secular sources.  Another blog referenced some of the secular references to Christ, while this blog evaluates extra-Biblical rabbinical references. Rabbis often provide critical comments on passages of Scripture in both the Old and New Testaments.  These comments provide a historical evaluation of Jewish thought on various issues for the past several millennia.  This is not a particularly easy field to study, To search in Rabbinic literature for data on any historical subject is a daunting task.  The sheer bulk of the literature, its baffling… Read More »

Ancient Secular References to Jesus

The historicity of Christ is supported by secular writers.

Posted on July 9, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence

Tags: , ,

I have discussed several ancient secular references to Jesus in another post evaluating the historicity of Scripture from a broad perspective.  In this article, I am going to concentrate on the evidence substantiating the historicity of Christ. The historicity of Christ is after all the most important question that must be answered regarding all of Scripture for as Paul said, if the Resurrection of Christ did not happen, then Christians are deluded and above all to be pitied.  If Christ did not exist, then neither did the Resurrection. I am only going to evaluate secular, extra-Biblical sources for the historicity… Read More »

Hardening Your Heart

Hardening of the heart is an expression going back to the ancient Egyptians. A heavy heart when weighed against a feather could mean a dismal future in the afterlife.

Posted on July 4, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence, Philosophical

Tags: ,

One of the most common colloquialisms is about hardening your heart.  According to Merriam-Webster, it means to stop having kind or friendly feelings for someone or caring about something. It would probably surprise most people that the expression derived from ancient Egypt and is important in the Biblical narrative. Hardening Your Heart Ancient Egypt was a place of customs that seem very strange to us today.  Many of these ancient customs are related to religious rituals the Egyptians followed concerning the afterlife. The Weight of the Heart ceremony was a procedure that the Egyptians believed occurred after death when you… Read More »

Atheism and the Meaning of Life

clock to measure time

Posted on June 28, 2021 by

Categories: Philosophical

Tags: ,

What is the meaning of life to an atheist?  Richard Dawkins chimed in on this topic when he opined as to whether life has any meaning at all.  In his book, The God Delusion, he noted, If the universe were just electrons and selfish genes, meaningless tragedies … are exactly what we should expect, along with equally meaningless good fortune.  Such a universe we observe has precisely the properties we should expect if there is, at bottom, no design, no purpose, no evil and no good. Possibly the most well-known paleontologist in the world Stephen Jay Gould of Harvard University opined,… Read More »

The Three Doomed Cities

The gospel is told in the stars in the constellations of the zodiac. These constellations are ancient in origin but many of the original names are Hebrew..

There are three doomed cities pronounced by Christ in the New Testament.  These particular cities had seen more miraculous events and the personal teaching of Christ for years, and yet they failed to understand.  They could not see the meaning of what was right before their eyes. Many readers are familiar with Christ’s pronouncement against Jerusalem, For the days shall come upon you when your enemies will throw up a bank before your, and surround you, and hem you in on every side, and will level you to the ground and your children within you, and they will not leave… Read More »

Historical Reliability of the Gospels

Bible with Hands

Posted on June 20, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence, Textual

Tags: ,

The historical reliability of the gospels offers another means for determining their historicity.   There are two means for determining the authenticity of any  historical account. The first is the most obvious; does the historical account have events that can be corroborated by multiple accounts.  This becomes progressively more difficult as the historical account becomes more remote.  Sometimes corroborating accounts become lost to history due to their loss or destruction.  Think for example of all the historical accounts that were lost during the destruction of the ancient Alexandria papyrus library. The second means for determining the reliability of an ancient historical… Read More »

Textual Reliability of the Gospels

Bible Image

Posted on June 12, 2021 by

Categories: Historical Evidence, Textual

Tags: ,

The reliability of the gospels is extraordinarily important to establish.  If they are not a reliable record of what actually happened during Christ’s life, then they would hold little value.  This is why the reliability of the gospels has been such an area of intense interest to theologians throughout church history. Skeptical authors have always held that the four gospels are folklore – just tales of epic stories that in reality represent a gross exaggeration and manipulation of actual events.  This is thought to have been done by ancient scribes interested in magnifying their country’s history.  These skeptics believe that… Read More »