"Matter" Article Items

The Multiverse

The Andromeda Galaxy distance can be measured with Cepheid variables among other means. This is one of the few galaxies that is actually moving toward the Milky Way galaxy.

Posted on December 26, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The multiverse has been proposed as a means for getting around the statistical impossibility of forming the universe by chance. A statistical impossibility is frequently taken as being any event that has less than one chance in 10^200. This number is chosen as the maximum number of events that could transpire since the universe began. This is derived as the number of cubic Planck lengths in the observable universe (3.6E+132) times Planck times since the universe began (2.4E+62) calculated from terms given here. Since this number is easily exceeded by the chance of several finely tuned physics constants to be… Read More »

Creation of Time

Posted on December 25, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The Big Bang not only created at least the three dimensions we all inhabit, but it also resulted in the creation of time. The Big Bang One of the arguments against the Big Bang is that the laws of nature are unable to explain the amazing amount of life’s complexity on Earth for the past four billion years. He notes this advance is not possible given the second law of thermodynamics. This law indicates systems tend to degrade over time. This degradation occurs in all levels of order, complexity, and information. One physicist who promotes this view is Eric Lerner… Read More »

Earth was Created

Posted on December 19, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The Earth was Created for Exploration The history of scientific exploration involves the interpretation of scientific data. Our knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the solar system, our galaxy, and the universe itself depends on our ability to explore.  The Earth was created to be in the proper place to enable exploration of the cosmos. We need to be able to measure, compare, and calculate in order to understand the cosmos. Understanding the cosmos requires measurement and observation of what is out there. Without certain conditions on our planet our planetary environment, such observation would be impossible. Scientific exploration could… Read More »

Stars Are Different

Stars are very different from each other in terms of size, age, composition, color, brightness, etc.

Posted on September 29, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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Stars all appear to be about the same; tiny lights in the night sky. On a clear night, it may be possible to notice stars of several different colors, especially the red stars like Antares. Over the last two centuries, much has been learned about differences among the stars and how two are precisely alike. It had been assumed that stars were basically the same and that their only major difference was their distance from Earth. Brighter stars were closer, and more distant stars were dimmer. Easy. But wrong. All The Stars are Not Equally Bright William Herschel was an… Read More »

Defying Gravity

The Sun

Posted on September 29, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The space between stars is mostly very empty with a density of about one atom per cubic centimeter.  However, there are interstellar clouds of matter swirling in space which possess a much greater density.  These clouds are in a balance between expansion and collapse.  Their internal heat makes them want to expand, while their gravity wants to make them collapse. As the interstellar cloud gradually cools off, expansion loses its fight with gravity and the cloud begins to contract.  As the cloud contracts, it will start to rotate faster much like a skater rotates faster with she brings her arms… Read More »

The Multiverse

The Multiverse

Posted on May 31, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Philosophical, Science

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No science concept has caught the public imagination more than that of a multiverse.  In the popular imagination, it is the theory that there are other universes present simultaneously with our own, with people resembling us acting out their lives along with a completely different storyline.  There is an infinite number of these stories producing an infinite number of outcomes. This concept has also caught on with the cosmology community as well for somewhat different reasons.  The idea of a finite beginning to the universe has too many theological consequences as well as difficulties with the burgeoning number of fine-tuning… Read More »

Imaginary Time

clock to measure time

Posted on May 29, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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Many cosmologists have struggled with the theological implications of the theories being developed recently. As we have seen, the BGV theory showed there is no getting around the origin of time at a single event called a “singularity.”  Furthermore, relatively states that everything began in that singularity including all space and time. Perhaps the most famous cosmologist who struggled with the theological notion of a beginning of time was Stephen Hawking.  He has become somewhat of a folk hero for many because he has tried to develop a means for excluding God from the creation event.  This is probably one… Read More »

The Beginning of Time

beginning of time

Posted on May 25, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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One of the most amazing things about the Big Bang theory is that it predicts all matter and time itself had a beginning.  For many years, theoretical physicists have attempted to revise the obvious predictions of Einstein’s theory of relativity concerning the expansion of the universe and the beginning of space and time.  This beginning leads to the possibility of a Beginner with all the theological implications of that conclusion. Recent scientific advances seem to make the case even more certain for the beginning of space and time.  Many have proposed a multiverse situation where continuous creations of an infinite… Read More »

Quantum Gravity

Quantum Gravity

Posted on May 24, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The current understanding of gravity is based upon Einstein’s general theory of relativity which is itself based upon classical physics.  The other three fundamental forces (electromagnetic, weak nuclear force and strong nuclear force) are described within the field of quantum mechanics which uses totally different formulations. Additionally, gravity is generally understood as operating within a large distance scale such as between planets, while the other three forces are operable on an atomic scale and subatomic particles. The field of quantum gravity attempts to understand gravity on a subatomic scale – generally at length scales near the Planck scale of about… Read More »

Oscillating Universe

The Sun

Posted on May 23, 2019 by

Categories: Cosmology, Science

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The steady state universe model along with its subsequent modifications has been shown not to be consistent with observational data.  Many cosmologists had been very interested in finding some way to make such a model work since it effectively did away with the need for an absolute beginning and its suggestion of a Beginner. Another model was dusted off and offered with an enthusiasm suggesting it might offer hope out of this metaphysical conundrum.  Hindu teachers for centuries have proposed a concept of reincarnation; now this idea was applied to the life of a universe.  More specifically, the oscillating universe… Read More »